Delirium after cardiac surgery is a common complication with prevalence rate ranging from 3 to 72% (Sockalingam, et al, 2005). This results to increase in morbidity and mortality between 20 to 30% (Chang, Tsai, Lin, Chen & Liu, 2008). Though previous studies have already established the prevalence rate of delirium, the risk factors associated with it have not been previously explored in a single sample of postoperative cardiac patients in an intensive care unit (Chang et al, 2008).This study then sought to establish incidence rate, risk factors and outcome of delirium in terms of ICU length of stay. A total of 681 patients were screened using the eligibility criteria set in this study. Two hundred and sixty two passed the screening, of which 143 tested positive, establishing the rate of delirium in this study at 54.58%. The Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU) was used to identify presence of delirum. Data were further analyzed using logistics regression and t-test. Risk factors associated with delirium which occurred <24 hours are amount of PRBC transfused and inotropic drugs given. With delirium that occurred after 24 hours, significant risk factors identified were: age, positive Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score preoperatively, anesthesia time, bypass time, cross clamp time, quantity (units) of PRBC transfused; quantity of analgesic, hypnotic, anticholinergic and inotropic drugs given; previous drug history, pulmonary disease as comorbidity, classification of surgery, hypermagnesemia. Patients with delirium had a significant increase in number of ICU days as compared with those who did not (p= 0.0453 for delirium that occurred in 24 hours or less and p=0.000 for delirium that occurred after 24 hours post surgery).
Keyword: Delirium, CAM-ICU, post cardiac surgery