This study investigated effects of maternal-infant interaction to maternal-infant attachment during a 30-minute visiting time in PICU.
A total of 23 mothers, aged 18-45 years old, were allowed visiting time three a day (10am-4pm-9pm). A respective total of 23 infants, aged 0-6 months, were observed for their responses to voice and touch stimuli in the presence and absence of maternal-infant interaction. Maternal-infant interaction consists of mother's presence, as measured by closeness/nearness, physical touch and verbal communication and show of concern as measured by gentle handling, soft and kind words and various caring acts.
An observational checklist was the tool used in this study. The checklist result was tabulated and a frequency distribution was drawn up. The results were also tested using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
The results of the study showed a significant difference in the response to voice and touch stimuli between infants who receive and do not receive material interaction.
For the response to touch, an increased percentage of calm babies was seen with maternal interaction. The result showed 82.6% from 43.5% during 10 am and 78.3% from 56.5% during 9 pm visiting time. There is a slight change in presence to touch stimuli during 4 pm.
For the response to voice, more calm responses were noted with maternal interaction as seen by scores 69.6% from 56.5% during 10 am and 87% from 56.5% during 9 pm visiting time. No change were noted in response to voice stimuli during 4 pm.
However, subjecting the results to Wilcoxon paired signed rank test yielded a non-significant result for response to voice with a two-tailed p=0.7897 for 10 am, p=1.000 for 4 pm and p=0.7353 for 9 pm visiting time. For response to touch, a computed two-tailed p=0.2560 for 10 am, p=.04955 for 4 pm and p=0.5751 for 9 pm can be seen.
Despite the inconclusive findings, the researches still believe that maternal-infant interaction affects maternal-infant attachment based on the review of related literatures, actual observation of infant responses during the study and frequency distribution results. A larger sample size may be required for further studies to prove statistical significance of variables under study.